Collaborative Deschutes River education and exploration tour held June 10



A coalition of Deschutes River stakeholders, including High Desert Food and Farm Alliance, Deschutes Basin Board of Control, and the Coalition for the Deschutes, hosted an all-day field trip on Saturday, June 10, aimed at educating the community about the critical, and often intricate, role of the Upper Deschutes River in Central Oregon.

The “Spring to Sprouts: River to Farm Field Trip” began with a visit to the Deschutes River at La Pine State Park, downstream from Wickiup Reservoir of the Deschutes River’s headwaters at Little Lava Lake. The tour continued to the North Canal Dam in Bend, where water is diverted for agriculture, and will conclude at two farms in Jefferson County, which rely on the Deschutes River for irrigation. Participants at each stop gained insight into the river’s remarkable region-wide impact and learn about the collaborative efforts underway to create long-term sustainable solutions for habitat, agriculture and recreation. 

“We are thrilled to be part of a coalition that is working together to manage our region’s water responsibly,” said Gail Snyder executive director for Coalition for the Deschutes. “Spring to Sprouts is a unique opportunity for the public to see first-hand the river’s impact on our food supply, and to learn about conservation efforts to protect and restore the natural habitat while meeting the water needs of our community.”


About the DBBC

The Deschutes Basin Board of Control represents eight irrigation districts in Oregon’s Deschutes Basin. The districts supply water throughout the Deschutes Basin to 8,700 patrons across 155,662 acres. The districts work in partnership with conservation groups and local, state and federal agencies to increase instream flows in rivers and creeks, while improving fisheries passage and ecologically important habitat. Since 2000, the districts have increased instream flows by nearly 80,000 acre-feet in the Deschutes River, Little Deschutes River, Ochoco Creek, Whychus Creek, Tumalo Creek and Crescent Creek, benefitting salmon, steelhead, bull trout, Oregon spotted frog and other species. For more information on the irrigation districts and their conservation efforts, visit 


About the Coalition for the Deschutes 

The mission of the Coalition for the Deschutes is to work for the restoration and protection of the Deschutes River and its watershed through education and advocacy so that fish and wildlife can thrive and future generations can enjoy and benefit from a healthy river and watershed.


About the HDFFA: 

High Desert Food and Farm Alliance is a 501(c)3 non-profit serving Crook, Deschutes and Jefferson Counties. The mission is to support a community-based food system in Central Oregon to increase access to fresh healthy food, support sustainable farm land use and foster relationships among farmers and consumers. 





T & H Farm, Culver Oregon

Springs to Sprouts Tour

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Putting Back the River 100+ year-old canals are a target in an effort to restore water flows in the Upper Deschutes

Source Weekly


June 1, 2017


A little Central Oregon irrigation humor.

Reporter: "How do you measure how much water you're getting?"

Farmer: "Go to the tree, grab that stick, stick it in and if it hits the notch then that's the right amount."

That's no joke. Such measuring tools are still in use while irrigation water flows are still calculated with manual "quarter turns." Central Oregon's canals are archaic. Some experts say they're leaking and robbing the Deschutes River of adequate flow to sustain salmon, trout and the Oregon spotted frog—and the question of what to do about it seems to erupt every year.

This year, though, the wheels seem to be in motion.

A complex issue

Imagine you've sprung a leak at your home and you're losing as much as 60 percent of the water you're paying for. You'd probably try and fix it as quickly as possible. "If you had a leak as big as this," says Tod Heisler of the Deschutes River Conservancy, speaking of the irrigation canals, "you'd fix it." Except when you're dealing with water rights, the loss of iconic canals and Oregonians' property, it's controversial and the change is slow moving. "We all agree there's a problem, we just disagree on how to get there and who will pay for it. But I'm confident we'll get there," Heisler says.

All water in Oregon is publicly owned (with some exceptions). Cities, farmers, factory owners and other users obtain water rights from the Oregon Water Resources Department to use water from any source— whether underground or from a canal. Senior water right holders were granted rights, attached to large parcels of land, as far back as 1905.

A hierarchical system pegs senior holders — those with rights authorized before 1905 — and junior water right holders against each other. Senior holders can issue "calls" for water and under Oregon law, junior holders must shut off their water until a senior gets their full allotment.


Water rights holders pay a per acre-feet fee, two farmers we spoke to said they paid approximately $25 a month, plus a head-gate fee of around $250 a year. When you see rural real-estate touting "original water rights" it's because these permits are attached to a specific property, not an individual. Property owners can lease, mitigate and give back their rights, though few rarely do. The "use it or lose it" clause requires holders to use all of the water they are allotted for, which is why you'll see golf-course type lawns in some areas. Although originally intended to prevent users from sitting on water rights, in practice, it tempts many to withdraw their full allotment, even when they don't need it.

recent report commissioned by Central Oregon LandWatch found that unequal water allocations end up wasting water and promoting inefficiency. Junior water right holders facing scarcity of water were found to conserve more frequently and were more apt to use drip-irrigation systems, preserving water at a rate of 94 percent, as opposed to sprinkler or flood irrigation systems which could see a 43 percent loss. The study in Jefferson County showed that if conservation practices were applied basin-wide, improved water quality could be seen across the Deschutes River.

But how do you incentivize farmers to make the switch to more efficient watering practices?

And what about all that loss of water?

A brief history

Over 100 years ago, settlers used horses and shovels to dig through coarse lava rock, carving over 700 miles of canal systems—by hand—for farming and ranching in Central Oregon. Swaths of dusty, arid high desert land were transformed into wetlands and rich farming meccas. But as population growth increased, the climate warmed, canals leaked, agriculture automatized and farms were eaten up by urbanization, Central Oregon began turning toward conservation. In the past few years irrigation districts have begun revisiting their relationship with the canals. A move toward pressurized systems is unfolding—albeit with some opposition—as efforts to restore the Upper Deschutes waterway flows continue.

An Intricate System


Fed by natural springs and snowpack, Central Oregon's water system centers around the Deschutes River and the reservoirs of Crescent Lake, Crane Prairie—and the largest, at 200,000 acre-feet—Wickiup Reservoir. Harnessing the flow of the Deschutes has been the method of choice for irrigation for more than 100 years. The character of the river has changed as a result, reducing flows and increasing temperatures, which greatly impact fisheries and wildlife. In the peak of farming season, up to 95 percent of the Deschutes is diverted, with most of those diversions located near Bend. In the Middle Deschutes, a 40-mile stretch of river between Bend and Lake Billy Chinook, the flow can drop drastically, down to 30 cubic feet per second (cfs).

"We need to figure out what benefits the river," DRC's Heisler says, "and our group provides the forum for all of the stakeholders—the irrigation districts, conservation groups, the government—to hammer out the best solution."

Solutions have been kicked around since 1999. Flows have improved within the past few years, from a median 47 cfs in 2002 to more than triple the rate 10 years later, at 157 cfs, as reported by the Upper Deschutes Watershed Council. Though that is far from ideal.

Gail Snyder, executive director of the Coalition for the Deschutes, speaking to the Source spoke about the importance of year-round flows maintained at 300 cfs, as suggested by the Wild and Scenic Management Plan designated in 1996 for the Upper Deschutes. Higher flows mean river ecology begins to improve, as slow flow is usually attributed to higher water temperatures which can eradicate native fish populations and impact habitat conditions for endangered species such as the Oregon spotted frog.

Fish numbers, too, are low. Species such as salmon and trout need cold temperatures to thrive; below 64 degrees, with an upwards limit of 75. Temperatures have been recorded well above these limits, even upwards of 82 degrees in some stretches of the river. A 2016 report by UDWC noted that at all four monitoring stations, the "Deschutes River exceeded the 18C (64 F) state standard for 2-57 percent of data days in 2015," thus at times, critically endangering fish species.

With restoring flows a major target, an unexpected player is vowing to help realize a portion of those restored flows: the very irrigation districts diverting most of the water, namely Central Oregon Irrigation District (COID).

Irrigation by the Numbers

"Our canals were built by the federal government, and we were given this canal system to foster development here. And it worked!" says COID's General Manager Craig Horrell. An engineer by trade who helped with the Old Mill District revamp, Horrell has been COID's GM for three years. His district oversees the largest share of canal systems—400 miles that deliver water to more than 46,000 acres and 3,600 patrons.

Being the largest irrigation district and seeing the inefficiencies of an antiquated system full of alleged leaks and evaporation, Horrell has been slowly fostering change in what some patrons say is an unconventional manner: by overhauling the canals and replacing them with pressurized systems, or pipes. His plan is to eliminate about 90 percent of pumps that currently irrigate crops, or approximately 2,300 pumps — an energy savings of approximately 33,287,460 kWH per year, according to the Energy Trust of Oregon.

Coupled with educating farmers for better on-farm efficiencies, such as the drip irrigation promoted by the LandWatch study, Horrell believes piping would save farmers 50 percent of their irrigation costs. A variance of 700 feet of elevation means many farmers use expensive pumps for their irrigation. Switching over would eliminate the need for pumps, reducing overall maintenance and electricity fees for farmers. Horrell believes farmers could be incentivized to switch when they realize the cost savings.


Critics points out that canal lining, a current go-to method, is less expensive then piping. However experts weigh in that lining requires significant maintenance and replacement cycles that ultimately lead to excessive costs.

"I'm all for pressurized systems," says one Redmond area cattle farmer. "The only thing I would be worried about is then the lack of groundwater, which could dry up our wells." Since aquifers replenish from groundwater, those concerns could be warranted. However, Tod Heisler of DRC says, "...The historic natural aquifer, one that has been here for thousands of years is not affected by canal piping. But this natural aquifer is much deeper, 500-800 feet deep."

Horrell agrees that the landscape of the region is changing, moving away from large scale commercial agriculture. He refutes any thought that water should be taken away from farmers. Still, he's all for promoting efficiency. "Bend is a beautiful place, but everything has changed," Horrell says, "What we're trying to tackle is how do we affect that change."

The plan is to replace the canal system from one that COID says leaks 40 to 60 percent of its water, mainly due to the porous volcanic bedrock underneath, as well as evaporation. At a 30 percent loss, The Pilot Butte canal appears to lose less, according to COID's research. A recent push by Sen. Jeff Merkley to add watershed and flood prevention operations into the federal spending bill passed in the Senate on May 4. It secures funding until the end of September, and means that for the first time since 2010, Central Oregon has a portion of $150 million to work with for water conservation projects.

A new project is slated between Smith Rock and Redmond, and would eliminate 140 rotations (the distribution of water at the farm gate) and impact 638 patrons. The pilot project showcases the benefits of the pressurized system proven to be efficient in other areas. Commenting on the need for replacement, Horrell says, "When you have a hundred-year-old system, it's pretty much all bad."

Opponents of Piping

"Not so," says Aleta Warren, a staunch opponent of piping, whose property backs onto the Pilot Butte Canal in Bend. Warren, a member of a now-defunct group that has fought COID against piping, got a portion of that canal from Cooley Road to Yeoman listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.

"This was dug by hand in 1903," Warren says, standing next to the canal. "It needs to be protected and cherished, not only for the wildlife, the ducks, geese, frogs and deer, but for its historical legacy."


The Pilot Butte Canal, photographed in May, now has protected national historic status. Residentsincluding Aleta Warren say the high water levels are suspect and are due to demand for hydro power.

COID's plans to pipe its two main canals would alter the aesthetic of the canals running through Bend, some of which are used (against recommendation) for recreational pursuits such as tubing. Reports state that piping both canals would conserve 82,000 acre-feet of water, or the equivalent of 276 cfs, in the Upper Deschutes during winter months.

Warren refutes this claim and the claim that the canal leaks, pointing to the high levels of water, lapping at the edges. "It's almost overflowing," she says, "If they're so worried about conserving, then why is it so high? COID is in it for the hydropower putting money in their pockets, and nothing else." Warren shows us Google satellite images that look like irrigation ponds, which she says are run off from the hydropower and are dumped in the northeast parts of the district.

Horrell disputes any claims regarding dumping or historical representation, noting that in their own independent study, they found 10 other markers that were deemed of greater historic significance. Still, he says, the piping plan calls to preserve some canal areas, such as a stretch in downtown Redmond and at Brasada Ranch in Powell Butte. "The bottom line is, we have people that don't want their water feature buried. So we're going to have barriers," Horrell says.

Piping—and then what?

With the switch to piping, COID's estimate is that about 10 percent of the newly-conserved water would be held, while the rest could be stored in the region's reservoirs, or used for junior water right holders, as mitigation credits, or to expand already-irrigated farmlands, and yes, hydropower. Horrell and COID say the main goal is to conserve water through pressurized pipes, and that hydropower is a secondary goal. The district already has a few micro plants and is setting sights on potential plants on the Pilot Butte and Central Oregon Canal Systems, saying the renewable energy is clean, carbon free and brings in revenue for further conservation efforts—although their System Improvement Plan doesn't say how the revenue would directly benefit conservation. Hydropower currently powers approximately 6,000 homes in the area.

Ryan Houston, executive director of the Upper Deschutes Watershed Council, thinks the solution starts with piping larger commercial farming and ranching operations first before worrying about Bend area canals. "Fundamentally, irrigation is designed to support agriculture, so we need to identify the most productive places of agriculture and then focus on building the infrastructure to deliver water efficiently to those places first," Houston says.

It's growing pains," he continues, "Since shifting from this predominant landscape to a growing urban area, where all of a sudden the canal is more of an aesthetically pleasing water feature in some areas that adds real estate value, we need to learn how to have conversations which support the good of the entire community."

An Upper Deschutes Basin Study funded by the Bureau of Reclamation is already underway, and stakeholders expect it to include further suggestions for restoring Upper Deschutes waterway flows at the end of the year.

For those involved in this perennial conundrum, new research and productive conversations seem to offer the promise of relief.

COID's Horrell reflects, "It's complicated, and there's many ideas on how to do it. We're just trying to achieve balance for the masses."

And as Houston points out, "Do we want to be a community that has 'healthy' canals or truly, healthy rivers?"


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Study claims Upper Deschutes allocations waste water

KTVZ News May 11, 2017

Irrigators say efforts already underway on issues

BEND, Ore. - A study released Thursday by Central Oregon LandWatch says when it comes to allocating water from the Upper Deschutes River for irrigation purposes, less is more. But the region's irrigation districts said efforts sought by the group already are well underway.

LandWatch said the study's findings indicate that the current system encourages inefficient use of water by senior water rights holders and very efficient use of water by junior water rights holders, resulting in higher crop yields and economic value on farms that have implemented practices to improve water use efficiency.

But irrigation districts responded that efforts to improve the situation are well under way, and in the words of Central Oregon Irrigation District Manager Craig Horrell, "They (LandWatch) are late to the party."

First, the rest of the LandWatch news release:

The study, “Agriculture and Irrigation in Oregon’s Deschutes and Jefferson Counties,” was conducted by Headwaters Economics and commissioned by Central Oregon LandWatch to increase awareness of the importance of irrigated agriculture and of conservation practices that improve crop yield while saving water.

 “Protection of agriculture is an important objective of our work,” said Paul Dewey, executive director of Central Oregon LandWatch. “So is restoration of more natural flows in the Upper Deschutes to maintain a healthy river system. This study shows we can achieve both.”

The study’s findings show that scarcity of water necessitates conservation and improved water use efficiency by junior water rights holders in Jefferson County - practices that, if applied basin-wide, could improve how water is used within the region and benefit the overall health of the Upper Deschutes River.

Of particular significance is the finding that on-farm efficiency practices can greatly reduce amounts of water that need to be diverted from the Upper Deschutes River for irrigation.

Water conservation strategies, such as drip irrigation systems, achieve an average of 94% water efficiency in Jefferson County, as compared to the lack of such strategies in Deschutes County, where the average has been as low as 43%. These water efficiency percentages reflect the amount of water used that was actually needed for the crops, so a smaller percentage reflects more water use than actually needed.

The Upper Deschutes was historically one of the most stable river systems in the country, LandWatch said. The development and operation of irrigation district systems have substantially altered the flows of the Upper Deschutes River over the past 100 years, with extremely low flows in the winter and very high flows in the summer. Impacts of these uneven flows include diminished water quality, fish kills and severe erosion of stream banks.

“The Deschutes River is one of the great rivers of the American West and the Upper Deschutes River is currently in bad shape,” said Dewey.  “We are now at a point where long-term solutions to the problems must be addressed. These findings point to conservation and efficiency as the answer to restoring the Upper Deschutes to health and providing clean and abundant water for future generations.”

For the full Headwaters Economics study and a position paper by LandWatch on the Upper Deschutes River, go to: The Headwaters Economics study is also found at:

Here's the response from Horrell and the Deschutes Basin Board of Control:

Today, Central Oregon LandWatch released a study on agriculture and irrigation use in Deschutes and Jefferson Counties. The study, conducted by Headwaters Economics, was commissioned by Central Oregon LandWatch.

The eight irrigation districts that serve Central Oregon are actively and aggressively working on water conservation strategies outlined in the study. 

Deschutes Basin irrigation districts are currently partnering with more than 20 stakeholders to complete the Deschutes Basin Habitat Conservation Plan for federal review and approval. 

Together with state and federal agencies, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, Portland General Electric and local conservation groups, this collaborative, scientifically based multi-species plan will create a comprehensive strategy to effectively protect and enhance natural habitat while meeting the water needs of our community. The stakeholders’ efforts are inclusive, science-based, and meant to benefit everyone who lives and works in Central Oregon.

This is a difficult issue that dozens of groups have spent years trying to solve. The solution to this problem is not a quick fix or something that can be done overnight. While the development of the Deschutes Basin Habitat Conservation Plan may not be moving as fast as some would like, it’s the best way to ensure productive, long-term results. 

We hope that today’s announcement means that Central Oregon LandWatch is going to support and encourage Deschutes Basin irrigation districts’ efforts. The districts are committed to overseeing this vital network while managing the challenges of upgrading century-old systems in ways that ensure a healthy river, improves fish and wildlife habitat and promotes vibrant communities while meeting the needs of the agriculture community.

Please call Craig Horrell, Vice Chair, Deschutes Basin Board of Control, if you have any questions on the conservation/restoration projects the districts are undertaking. Craig can be reached at 541-548-6047.


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Oregon’s water supply in good shape

Capital Press/Eric Mortenson

Published on May 10, 2017


The water supply outlook is welcome news for Oregon irrigators, who have faced shortages the past few years.


The state’s heavy snowpack and water supply outlook held steady in April, good news especially for five Deschutes River irrigation districts that cut back water use last year after getting caught up in a lawsuit over the Oregon spotted frog. 


The latest report from the Portland office of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service showed that the statewide snowpack in all river basins was 155 percent of average as of May 1. 


For comparison, the snowpack was 11 percent of normal at this time of year in 2015, 62 percent in 2014 and 64 percent in 2016. Heavy snowfall and cold wet weather throughout this past winter and spring broke the drought that gripped the Pacific Northwest the past three years. 


Julie Koeberle, an NRCS hydrologist and member of the agency’s snow survey team, said Oregon’s summer water supply hasn’t looked this good since 2011. 


“Everybody’s happy this year,” she said. 


Koeberle said it’s unlikely that warm weather will rapidly melt the snowpack and change the water outlook for this summer.


 “Not at this point,” she said. “The snow remaining is still above normal. With this much snow left, even if we had a rapid snow melt that occurred, we still have a buffer.” 


The water outlook is welcome news for the five irrigation districts that were accused in lawsuits of violating the Endangered Species Act by harming the Oregon spotted frog. The complaints were filed by the Center for Biological Diversity and Waterwatch of Oregon against the federal Bureau of Reclamation, which operates Deschutes River system reservoirs, and the Arnold, Central Oregon, Lone Pine, North Unit and Tumalo irrigation districts. 


As a result of a 2016 settlement, the districts agreed to maintain minimum river flows at a level that provided better habitat for the frogs. To do that in a period of drought and diminished water levels, the districts had to forgo some of the irrigation water they normally would have drawn from the system. 


Things look much better this spring. 


“At this point we expect users should get full allotments of water,” said ShanRae Hawkins, spokeswoman for the districts. “Certainly having more water in the basin is helpful to everyone. It’s good for fish, good for wildlife and benefits irrigation users.” 


She said the snow-water equivalent — the amount of water in the snow — recently measured 117 percent of normal in the Upper Deschutes and Crooked River basins. The Crane Prairie and Wickiup reservoirs, which store irrigation water, are filling with runoff from melting snow. They stood at 87 percent and 83 percent full, respectively, as of May 8. 


“It’s just such a relief,” Hawkins said. 


Producers in the area grow carrot seed, flower seeds, peppermint, hay, alfalfa and more.


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This past winter’s ample snowfall means many popular fishing lakes remain inaccessible

By Mark Morical, The Bulletin, @MarkMorical

Eager anglers might have to wait a bit longer to fish their favorite Central Oregon lakes this spring, as heavy snowfall this past winter will keep many of the region’s high-elevation lakes inaccessible for a few more weeks.

While there is no longer an official opening day for high Cascade lakes season, Crane Prairie and Wickiup reservoirs, located southwest of Bend off Cascade Lakes Highway, officially open for fishing Saturday. Both of those reservoirs are ice-free and accessible for this weekend, according to resort owners. Twin Lakes, adjacent to Wickiup, are also accessible.

Crane Prairie and Wickiup remain closed until late April each year to protect the native rainbow trout in those waters, according to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Most other lakes in Oregon became open to fishing year-round starting in 2016, as part of the ODFW’s simplification of sport fishing regulations.

Tom Shamberger, operations manager with the Deschutes County Road Department, said his crews have been hard at work clearing snow and opening sections of roads in anticipation of fishing season. Cascade Lakes Highway is currently open from the Crescent Cutoff north to the junction with Forest Service Road 42.

Cascade Lakes Highway remains closed from Mount Bachelor to Road 42, and Forest Service Road 40 from Sunriver to Cascade Lakes Highway also remains inaccessible, Shamberger said. He added that his goal is to open the entire Cascade Lakes Highway by Memorial Day weekend.

Meanwhile, anglers seeking to reach Wickiup and Twin Lakes can take Forest Service Road 42 from Sunriver to Cascade Lakes Highway. Those seeking to reach Crane Prairie can take Road 42 to Road 4270.

Lava Lake remains inaccessible due to snow, according to Lava Lake Resort owner Joie Frazee. He said he is hoping for the lake and resort to be accessible by May 6.

Among other high Cascade lakes that remain inaccessible are Todd, Devils, Sparks, Elk, Hosmer and Cultus lakes.

Farther south, Crescent, Odell and Davis lakes are ice-free and accessible, according to the ODFW.

East of La Pine in the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, Paulina and East lakes remain inaccessible as the gate remains closed at 10-Mile Sno-Park, according to Shamberger. The gate will be opened sometime in mid- to late May, he added.

For updates on road openings and closures, check the Deschutes County Road Department website at and click on the “news, info, and closures” tab.

High lakes that will be open and accessible this weekend or are already open and accessible should provide lots of opportunities for anglers.

Erik Moberly, Bend-based fisheries biologist for the ODFW, said that both North Twin and South Twin lakes were on the ODFW’s stocking schedule for this week. Those lakes were each due to be stocked with 2,500 rainbow trout.

“Plus there’s the holdovers from last year, which should be pretty good,” Moberly said.

Twin Lakes Resort is set to open on Friday, according to co-owner Kate Dunn.

On Wickiup Reservoir, the hot early-season catch is kokanee. Anglers are allowed to harvest up to 30 kokanee per day on Wickiup.

Most anglers jig or troll for kokanee, whose average size in Wickiup is a whopping 18 to 22 inches.

“The water is still cold so the kokanee are bunched up in schools,” Moberly said. “Once the water starts warming up they kind of spread out, and so that’s why a lot of people target those kokanee early in the season. When you find them on your fish finder there’s usually a school of them, so you can catch more than one or two.”

Other species that anglers target on Wickiup are brown trout and rainbow trout.

On Crane Prairie, the main catches are rainbow and brook trout. Rainbows in Crane Prairie average about 14 to 18 inches long, and many are in the 4- to 10-pound range, according to the ODFW. Anglers can also fish for kokanee and largemouth bass in Crane, Moberly noted.

Crane Prairie Resort is set to open on Friday, according to owner Pat Schotz.

— Reporter: 541-383-0318,

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